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쟁점:지금의 이슈들

이주, 이주노동자 그리고 자본주의

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결론

자본주의는 분열 지배에 기초한 체제다. 영국의 역대 정부들은 노동자들을 서로 이간질시키기 위해 인종차별 카드를 사용하거나 외국인 혐오에 의존해 왔다. 2008년에 영국과 미국 경제의 거품이 극적으로 터졌고, 두 경제 모두 위기로 빠져들면서 일자리는 줄어들었으며, 이주노동자들은 그들이 실업난의 원인이라는 비난을 받고 있다. 당연히 이들 노동자들은 두려워한다. 그러나 이주노동자들이 희생양으로 이용되는 것은 위험하다. 작업장과 노동조합에서 이주노동자에게 책임을 돌려서는 안 된다고 주장하는 것이 사회주의자들에게 사활적이다. 전 유럽에서 신자유주의는 살인적인 경쟁을 초래했고, 자본주의 심장부에서 발생한 혼돈 때문에 경쟁은 더 악화됐다. 역사는 이주노동자와 내국인 노동자가 나란히 서서 더 나은 세계를 위해 싸워서 승리할 수 있음을 보여준다. 우리는 영국 노동자들 사이에서 국제적 전망을 세울 필요가 있듯이, 이주노동자들 사이에서도 사회주의 경향을 발전시킬 필요가 있다.

MARX21

참고문헌

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1 See Haywood 2008; Emmer 1993; Fagan 1990.
2 Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, Perraton 1999.
3 Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, Perraton 1999.
4 Sassen 1988.
5 See Kale 1998; Northrup 1995.
6 Nayyar 2006, citing Tinker 1974.
7 Nayyar 2006, citing Lewis 1977.
8 Nayyar 2006, citing Lewis 1977.
9 Stalker 1994.
10 Harris 1995.
11 Marfleet 1998; Marflee, 2005.
12 Engels 1962.
13 라트비아, 리투아니아, 에스토니아, 헝가리, 폴란드, 슬로바키아, 슬로베니아, 체코공화국.
14 이 논문에서 다루는 일부 실증 자료들은 “노조의 경계를 넘어선 협력과 폴란드 이주노동자들”이라는 프로젝트의 일환으로 수집된 것이다. 2007년 2월에서 2008년 4월까지 이언 피츠제럴드가 이끄는 경제사회연구협의회가 이 프로젝트에 자금 지원을 했다.
15 Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzales 1993.
16 Migrant Remittances Newsletter, http://migrantremittances.typepad.com/
17 “Slaves From North Korea Work In Gdansk Shipyards”, Gazeta Wyborcza, 24 March 2006.
18 Sassen 1988, p39.
19 Fitzgerald 2007; Hardy and Clark 2007; Anderson, Ruhs, Rogaly and Spencer 2006.
20 Jordan and Düvell 2002.
21 문헌 검토를 위해서는 Rowthorn, 2008를 보라.
22 Home Office 2007.
23 House of Lords 2008, p22.
24 Blanchflower, Saleheen and Shadforth 2007.
25 House of Lords 2008.
26 Dustmann, Frattini and Preston 2007.
27 Stobart 2008.
28 “Irish Ferries Dispute Resolved After Bitter Stand-off”, EIROnline, 21 December 2005.
29 Cremers, Dolvik and Bosch 2007.
30 Woolfson and Sommers 2006.
31 Woolfson and Sommers 2006.
32 Held, McGrew, Goldblatt, Perraton 1999.
33 Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzales 1993.
34 Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzales 1993.
35 Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzales 1993.
36 Caplan and Torbey 2001.
37 Caplan and Torbey 2001.
38 Gubbay 1999, p44.
39 Correspondence with Nick Clark.
40 See Marx 1959, p89.
41 National Conference of State Legislatures 2007.
42 American Immigration Law Foundation 2002.
43 http://tinyurl.com/fruitjobs
44 Guerin-Gonzalez and Strikwerda 1993.
45 Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzalez 1993.
46 Sinclair 2006.
47 Barrett, 1987, cited by Strikwerda and Guerin-Gonzalez 1993.
48 Milkman 2000 and 2006.
49 Milkman 2000 and 2006.
50 Mink 1986, cited by Milkman 2000.
51 Barrett 1987, cited by Milkman 2000, p4.
52 Milkman 2000 and 2006.
53 Milkman 2000 and 2006.
54 Waldinger and others 1998, p117, cited by Milkman 2000.
55 Zabin 2000.
56 Milkman and Wong 2000.
57 Mahamdallie 2007.
58 Mahamdallie 2007.
59 Castle and Kovack 1973.
60 Border and Immigration Agency 2007.
61 Salt and Millar 2006.
62 Border and Immigration Agency 2007.
63 노조 교육 기금은 1998년에 정부가 “학습 단체” 창설을 목적으로 노조 활동을 증진시키기 위해 설립한 기구다. 노조 교육 기금 대표자의 역할은 노조의 보건 및 안전 대표자의 역할과 비슷하며 공인된 지위가 주어진다. www.unionlearningfund.org.uk을 보시오.
64 Fitzgerald and Hardy 2007.
65 “Chilling Anti-strike Tactics At Iceland”, Socialist Worker, 16 December 2006.
66 지금은 the Unite 노조에 소속돼 있다.
67 “Bus Drivers: ‘Bosses Treat Us All The Same-Badly”, Socialist Worker, 29 October 2005.
68 Anderson, Clark and Parutis 2006.
69 Fine 2006.
70 Fine 2006.
71 Fine 2006, p257.
72 Pratt Center for Community Development, http://prattcenter.net/cdc-telcau.php
73 Wills 2008.
74 Wills 2008, p309.
75 Wills 2008, p309.
76 Fitzgerald and Hardy 2007.
77 Fitzgerald and Hardy 2007.
78 Interview with author.
79 사회당은 1901년에 창당됐고, 노동운동에 깊이 뿌리 내리고 있었다.
80 “Countries Struggle With Rising Numbers Of Unemployed Migrant Workers”, 10 February 2009. Available on www.findingdulcinea.com
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